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In an SQL table, the area in each row that stores the data value for some attribute of the object modelled by the table. For example, the Employee table in the AdventureWorks sample database models the employees of the Adventure Works Cycles company. The Title column in each row of the Employee table stores the job title of the employee represented by that row, the same way a Job Title field in a window or form would contain a job title.
An operation that saves all changes to databases, cubes, or dimensions made since the start of a transaction. A commit guarantees that all of the transaction's modifications are made a permanent part of the database, cube or dimension. A commit also frees resources, such as locks, used by the transaction.
An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within the result set. After the cursor is positioned on a row, operations can be performed on that row, or on a block of rows starting at that position. The most common operation is to fetch (retrieve) the current row or block of rows.
A database or other data repository coupled with an ODBC Driver, which has been given a Data Source Name (see DSN) to identify it to the ODBC Driver Manager.
The process of immediately reproducing every update to a read/write database (the principal database) onto a read-only mirror of that database (the mirror database) that resides on a separate instance of the Database Engine (the mirror server).
The default mode that SQL Server uses to return a result set back to a client. Rows are sent to the client in the order in which they are placed in the result set, and the application must process the rows in this order. After running an SQL statement on a connection, the application cannot do anything on the connection except retrieve the rows in the result set until all the rows have been retrieved. The only other action that an application can perform before the end of the result set is to cancel the remainder of the result set. This is the fastest method to get rows from SQL Server to the client.
See ODBC driver.
Software whose main function is to load ODBC drivers. ODBC applications connect to the Driver Manager and request a data source name (DSN). The Driver Manager loads the driver specified in the DSN's configuration file. On Windows, the ODBC Data Source Administrator is used to set up the Driver Manager.
Data Source Name. A name associated with an ODBC data source. Driver Managers, such as unixODBC or the Microsoft Windows Driver Manager, use the Data Source Name to cross-reference configuration information and load the required driver.
A type of data connection that is created based on information in a data source name (DSN), but is stored as part of a project or application. DSN-less connections are especially useful for Web applications because they let you move the application from one server to another without re-creating the DSN on the new server.
In a relational database, a database object that provides fast access to data in the rows of a table, based on key values. Indexes can also enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. SQL Server supports clustered and nonclustered indexes. The primary key of a table is automatically indexed. In full-text search, a full-text index stores information about significant words and their location within a given column.
A copy of SQL Server running on a computer. A computer can run multiple instances of SQL Server 2005 or later. A computer can run only one instance of SQL Server version 7.0 or earlier, although in some cases it can also be running multiple instances of SQL Server 2000.
The property of a transaction that controls the degree to which data is isolated for use by one process, and is guarded against interference from other processes. Setting the isolation level defines the default locking behaviour for all SELECT statements in your SQL Server session.
The system database that records all the system-level information for an instance of SQL Server. This includes instance-wide metadata such as login accounts, endpoints, linked servers, and system configuration settings. Also, master is the database that records the existence of all other databases and the location of those database files and records the initialization information for SQL Server.
A hashing algorithm that creates a 128-bit hash value used to verify data integrity. A hashing algorithm is a mathematical procedure for randomising information to make it more secure in transmission. The more bits in a hash, the greater the security of the encryption process.
An installation of SQL Server that is given a name to differentiate it from other named instances and from the default instance on the same computer. A named instance is identified by the computer name and instance name.
An entry that has no explicitly assigned value. NULL is not equivalent to zero or blank. A value of NULL is not considered to be greater than, less than, or equivalent to any other value, including another value of NULL.
In an SQL table, a single occurrence of the object modelled by the table. For example, in the AdventureWorks sample database, the Employee table models the employees of the Adventure Works Cycles company. Each row in the table records all the information about a specific employee such as an employee identification number, job title, and the date that employee was hired.
A name that uniquely identifies a server computer on a network. SQL Server applications can connect to a default instance of SQL Server by specifying only the server name. SQL Server applications must specify both the server name and instance name when connecting to a named instance on a server.
A language used to insert, retrieve, modify, and delete data in a relational database, designed specifically for database queries. SQL also contains statements for defining and administering the objects in a database. SQL is the language supported by most relational databases, and is the subject of standards published by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). SQL Server uses a version of the SQL language called Transact-SQL.
The version of the SQL standard published in 1992. The international standard is ISO/IEC 9075:1992 Database Language SQL. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) also published a corresponding standard (Data Language SQL X3.135-1192), so SQL-92 is sometimes referred to as ANSI SQL in the United States.
A precompiled collection of Transact-SQL statements that are stored under a name and processed as a unit. SQL Server supplies stored procedures for managing SQL Server and displaying information about databases and users. SQL Server-supplied stored procedures are called system stored procedures.
A set of five databases present in all instances of SQL Server that are used to store system information. The msdb database is used by SQL Server Agent to record information on jobs, alerts, and backup histories. The model database is used as a template for creating all user databases. The tempdb database stores transient objects that only exist for the length of a single statement or connection, such as worktables and temporary tables or stored procedures. The master database stores all instance-level metadata, and records the location of all other databases. The Resource database contains all the system objects that are included with SQL Server, such as system stored procedures and system tables.